Category Archives: PRCA 2330

Reaching a Multicultural and Diverse Audience, ch. 11

The groups of diverse cultural, ethnic, religous, and economic statuses is what makes an audience different. When these groups come together with similar interests it can work or sometimes can be a conflict.

When it comes to different age groups you must approach them all in their own unique way. The age groups are categorized as:

  • Youth and young adults
  • Baby-boomers
  • Seniors

As a professional in PR you must be able to understand the differences in cultural values, and reach out to different racial and ethnic groups.

One of the most important tips I took from this chapter was matching the audience with the media. This only makes sense. An older audience might prefer print media over the internet. Why? The reason is that elderly were not exposed to the new technological advances that the younger generations were exposed to. My generation has grown up with computers in our classrooms. We have been using the internet for research since late elementary to early middle school. The older generation (seniors) are more likely to look to media that they know. In this case with the example I gave, one would assume they prefer the newspaper.

Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Communication, ch. 7

What is communication?

Well Websters dictionary defines it as:

1. The activity of communicating.

2. Something that is communicated between people or groups.

3. A connection allowing access between persons or places.


It is also the third step in the public relations process. It may also be referred to as “execution,” and is known as the most visible part of public relations work.


The main process of communication is the goal of getting a message across from an encoder to a decoder. There must be a source which is also known as the sender/encoder. The sender sends the message that travels through a channel to a receiver. The receiver then decodes the message. The fifth element in the proccess can be feedback from the reciever to the sender. (There has to be a shared experience.)


The most effective two-way communication envolves two people having a face-to-face conversation. The reason that face-to-face is so important is because you are then able to see gestures, facial expressions, intimacy between conversation, hear the tone of voice each other uses, and be able to receive instand feedback. The bigger a group gets the harder it is to communicate with each other. This has become a problem in mass media.


Two Types of Audiences:

  1. Active: The people are already at the interest stage. They are seeking out more information. An example of an active audience would be one who is about to purchase something and finds it attractive, basically already sold on that product. The person will ask for more information about the product in detail. They might also read in-depth articles concerning the product before purchase, or perhaps talk to someone who knows something about the product.
  2. Passive: The people who pay attention to the message only because it offers a type of entertainment. They can be made aware of the message through brief encounters. They like to use communication channels that can be utilized while they are doing not much else. An example of this type of audience would be an announcement they heard on the radio on the way to church.

 Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Research: ch. 5

The main process of PR can be summed up by an acronym -RACE.

  1. Research– figure out what the problem is
  2. Action- what we do about the problem
  3. Communication– how are we going to tell the public
  4. Evaluation– see if you reached your audience, and study the effects

Questions asked about research, (note: these can be found on Barbara Nixon’s blog,, click here

  • Should the organization do the research in-house or hire an outside consultant?
  • How will the research data be analyzed, reported, or applied?
  • How soon will the results be needed?
  • How much will the research cost?

There are two types of Reseach

  1. Primary– in-depth interviews, focus groups, surveys, and polls.
  2. Secondary– existing information, such as, information in books, magazine articles, and electronic databases

Two Methods of Research:

  1. Qualitative
  • “Soft” data
  • Usually uses open-ended questions, unstructured
  • Exploratory in nature; probing, fishing-expedition type of research
  • Usually valid, but not reliable
  • Rarely projectable to larger audiences
  • Generally uses nonrandom samples
  • Examples: Focus groups; one-on-one; in-depth interviews; observation; participation; role-playing studies; convenience polling

     2.    Quantitative

  • “Hard” data
  • Usually uses close-ended questions, requires forced choices, highly structured
  • Descriptive or explanatory type of research
  • Usually valid and reliable
  • Usually projectable to larger audiences
  • Generally uses random samples
  • Examples: Telephone polls, mail surveys, mall intercept studies, face-to-face interviews, shared cost, or omnibus studies; panal studies

Last little offerings of advice:

  • In research you must think carefully about how you word your questions in a questionaire.
  • Role-playing can even be helpful when gaining insights into the strengths and weaknesses of an organization.

Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Another 48 Hours of Twitter

Here’s the thing- Twitter has not yet become an active part of my day. I always forget to check it or even get on the website. Once I do get on my status usually states something along the lines of, (its only 11:00 a.m. and I need another cup of coffee). This of course is not going to provoke many replies from other twittering buddies.

In effort of trying another 48 hours of Twitter, I put more thought into my updates. For instance, this go around, unlike my first experience, I wrote statuses that would naturally ask for a reply. One of my updates I posted was about technology and how mind blowing the advances are with a really fascinating video attached. I got zero responses. I have not recieved much feedback and will probably just use twitter every now and then to follow well-known people I like, and read what kind of things they are doing. It surprises me that so many famous people in entertainment are now using twitter. I would not have expected this.

Overall, I would like to be able to use twitter without confusion. 🙂 I keep having problems sending messages to other people on Twitter. This is my only problem that I have dealt with on the website though.

After following some PR professionals on Twitter these are some of my recommended favorites:

  • Lacie Smith- she graduated from GSU, and is now working for the American Cancer Society in Athens, Ga. I like to follow her on Twitter for her updates on events and facts that help fight cancer.
  • Urkovia Andrews- a PR professor at our college. I have started following her to see if she has any interesting updates on her classes, because more than likely I will have her in the future.
  • Mackenzie Whalen- PR Coordinator for Georgia Aquarium. I knew her when she went to school here at GSU, and look to her Twitter page for intersting PR facts or updates on public relations with her company.

*You can find me on Twitter at


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PR Ethics, Ch. 3

The topic of discussion is Ethics and Beliefs. We all believe different things, so who is to say what is right or wrong? Hopefully this post will help you evaluate what kind of a thinker you are in a professional situation.

What you believe in can and does most likely determine the way you act. Philosophers state that there are three basic categories in which individuals fall under.

  1. Absolute– The absolute believes that every decision is either “right” or “wrong,” regardless of the consequences. It is based on the philosophy of Immanuel Kant that the end cannot justify the means.
  2. Existential- The existentialist, whose choices are not made in a prescribed value system, which decides on the basis of immediate practical choice. This approach is somewhat grounded in Aristotle’s idea that individuals should seek a balance, or midpoint, between two extremes. In other words, Aristotle would disagree with Kant by saying, “never say never.”
  3. Situational– The situationalist believes that each decision is based on what would cause the least harm or the most good. This often is called the utilitarian approach. This concept was advanced by John Stuart Mill, who believed the end could justify the means as long as the result benefited the greatest number of people.

Another approach to ethics is simply and well-known as “The Golden Rule“- love your neighbor as yourself, or “treat others as you would like to be treated.”

Three principles that you should keep in mind that are essential from the IABC Code of Ethics are:

  • Professional communication is legal
  • Professional communication is ethical
  • Professional communication is in good taste

If you need more ethical or professional questions answered groups such as, PRSA, IABC, and IPRA may provide a code of conduct that has been published or have educational programs.

(Note: Information from this post was primarily found in the textbook for, Introduction to Public Relations course, Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics.) Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009) Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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News, Ch. 14

The question asked today in class was, “What is news?” This seems like a simple enough question, right? Well, it is but at the same time has multiple answers. Just listening to the responses these were some of the answers blurted out.

  • Provide Information
  • A Current Event
  • Timely
  • Sometimes Relative to you, or Important

News is everywhere. It can be anything from information you get from a friend to something you read in a paper, which was the main topic in class today.

Interesting Note for people new to PR: Press Releases and News Releases are the same thing. Although, the term used more commonly today is News Release.

Fun Fact: Ivy Lee is the father, (the inventor) of the Press Release.

Quick Notes:

  • Reporters are going to rely on the PR professional to gather information for the news release. The reason being is because they are getting information straight from someone involved in the company.
  • In a news release write in an Inverted Pyramid form. Include your most important information first.
  • Try to include your 5 w’s and h in the introduction. The 5 W’s being- Who, What, When, Where, and Why, and last but not least your H,-How.

Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Program Planning Ch. 6

Public Relations is based around a process, hence the word planning. There is a four step process that is simple to go by if you can remember the acronym RACE. The four steps are research, action, communication, and evaluation. Each step follows another. Public relations planning should be strategic.

In class we discussed the differences between Informational Objectives and Motivational Objectives.

  • Motivational are much easier to measure than informal objectives.
  • The main objective of Motivational objectives are to clearly measure results to be quantified.
  • Informational objectives are mainly used to increase public awareness and deliver key messages. The difficult part in this is measuring how well a particular objective is achieved.
  • Two comparisons from our text Public Relations Strategies and Tactics, 9th edition, Wilcox and Cameron:

Informational Objective:

Clorox: “Generate widespread awareness of the gentle benefits of Clorox Anywhere.”

Motivational Objective:

Clorox: “Stimulate awareness and word-of-mouth by reaching at least 3,000 key target audience members with information about Clorox.”

Your Public Relations Plan should include at least 8 elements:






6.Calendar or Timeline



Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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Resume/Interview Tips: Random Top 10

10. Email a thank you note as soon as your interview is over, and then also handwrite one for the mail.

9. Research the company before you go to an interview. You might want to know their locations, mission statement, growth, and what exactly they do.

8. Before an interview ask the person conducting the interview what type of interview it will be. Examples could be traditional or behavorial.

7.  Think of questions to ask before the interview, that will ensure the employer you are interested in the position.

6. Pay attention to your body language. Keep good eye contact, posture, and stay focused.

5. Make sure you and your resume smell clean and crisp.

4. Do NOT chew gum.

3. Use strong action verbs in your vocabulary on paper and in the interview.

2. Make sure your cell phone is turned off or on silent.

1. Be confident!


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“Wag the Dog” Movie Discussion


The film “Wag the Dog”  presents a very interesting view on the world in a way relating to public relations. I believe that the story closely relates to the Situational value out of the three basic value orientations philosopher’s have given. Although I find it situational I would also argue that the story line is existential as well. The PR practitioner represents views that fall under the existential status. H uses the “never say never” approach from Aristotle discussed in chapter three of our text, “Public Relations Strategies and Tactics.” His decisions throughout the movie are based on what is right at the moment. And his way of thinking portrays a sense that everything can be accomplished.

The PR practitioner violates the PRSA Code of Ethics, by simply being unethical. One example of him doing this was how he would stop for nothing to get a job done for the president, but at the same time left the other three involved on their own. Here he is only concerned with his reasoning alone. This example complies with the Independence principles that is listed under PR ethics. He was unhonest, devious, and ultimately untrustworthy.

The phrase “Wag the Dog” was stated in the beginning of the movie as “a dog is its tail, because its smarter than its tail, if the tail was smarter it would wag the dog.”  The PR practitioner is entirely unethical. When the PR practitioner was involved with the public he was dishonest. This type of falsehood or manipulation, was tricking them into “waging themselves.” The people think that are in control and “waging their tails” but in reality they are being tricked.

The film is humorous, but at the same time proves that in the history of people in PR most are guilty of being unethical. Public Relations is a hard field, and you must be ready to take part in that struggle. You must get the job done, ultimately. The negative stereotypes portrayed in the movie are that most PR practitioners are dishonest. You must not deviate from the truth because in the end, everyone appears in the wrong.

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Public Relations and its changes, Ch. 2

As experts have looked over the field of Public Relations over the years there have been many advancements and improvements. The field is popular and keeps growing at a rapid rate. In fact, not only is it growing but women in particular are making up at large part of the workforce, (70% to be exact). After World War II and the TV was invented, the introduction of technology came about and the industry skyrocketed. Today we as humans do so much on computers and are on the internet constantly throughout the day.

In class my assignment was to research into the next 50 years of Public Relations. It is proven that there are trends that already take place but that new issues will arise and will also transform and change the way we do things today. Our interaction with others is very important, and this disucssion brings about a knowledge of knowing your audience. Those majoring or going into the field must be able to interact with our multicultural world. Social Responsibility also plays a huge role in change over the years. James Murphy, global managing director of communications for Accenture, said it like this, “PR staffs are in the forefront of building trust and credibility-and coordinating corporate social responsibility efforts. These are the people who deal with trust issues all the time; therefore, we’re in a good poisition to address them.”

As we enter into these next fifty years of life, our techonology is everchanging, and we must be able to adjust with it as well. Over 2 billion will be on internet and over 2 million on cell phones. Just a few years ago we did not know what computers or cell phones were. We must be honest in all aspects of our jobs and learn to think outside the box in order to keep up with the growing changes we will all be experiencing. Bring it on world, we’re ready! 🙂

Wilcox, D.L., & Cameron, G.T. (2009). Public relations: Strategies and tactics (9th Ed.). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.

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